Sunday, February 16, 2020

Harvard Business Review Competitive Forces Paper Essay

Harvard Business Review Competitive Forces Paper - Essay Example However, the risks can be translated to a competitive advantage (Porter, 2008). Areas where IT represents a risk to company’s competitive advantage Physical threats Physical threats arise from damage of company servers and other IT resources e.g. by fire, theft and floods. It may also happen as a result of unauthorized access of information by malicious employees. Electronic threats Such risks when they materialize aim at compromising the information security of a company. They come in the following ways: virus attacks e.g. luv bug and Melissa viruses; attach by black hat hackers who are usually malicious and crack your IT system hoping to gain something out of the information; fraudulent emails and websites. These threats can cause fraudulent transactions. The staff also misuses organizations emails and web. Organizations bandwidth can also be misused by Staff who performs peer-to-peer file transfer and sharing. Failure to update or configure the organization's software usual ly brings about these types of threats. Technical failure Occur when a hardware device ceases to function or some of its components get damaged. In some instances, it occurs when a software bug is introduced to the system or shows up due implementation errors. This failure can occur due to large, complex systems which are unstable and are frequently maintained and updated. Infrastructural failure Occurs when network and power outages occur and one cannot access the internet. These will definitely interrupt the business process and valuable transactions might be missed out. A company may have an Uninterrupted Power Supply, but in other cases, they seem to fail. Human error These happen when an employee fails to adhere or to be keen to IT stipulated policies and procedures or when an employee accidentally deletes important business data. Specific areas in which IT may support or promote a company’s competitive advantage Know the IT environment/estate In order to manage risks, a company needs to know all its IT assets. It needs to know how many servers are there, how many PCs per department, the applications running on the servers and client PCs. The company should also keep track of who uses which IT asset, who manages the assets, supports the systems, the data stored and processed in servers and machines, the workflow of the processes e.tc. A company might rate the importance of an asset by the data they store the liability which can be got when the data gets mishandled. Companies also have tools which track the assets even by the person who uses it and can even happen in real time, but the most important thing is arranging the assets in groupings which are organized e.g. as a business unit, data center product line. It can be put in any grouping which allows the analysts to do their job without too much consultation or up and down movements. A manager may want to view analysis reports or an auditor may want to view compliance reports. Identifying risks and policies The organization needs to identify the risks which are a likely and their probabilities. It should also identify the policies which can be utilized in managing risks. The starting point is identifying the operational policy controls which are usually under the company’s IT Governance and risk compliance (GTC) program. The operational controls standards used

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Politics and culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

Politics and culture - Essay Example The comparison will be between ‘Five Faces of Oppression, by Iris Young and ‘The Creation of Patriarchy’ By Gerda Lerner. Iris Young’s article explains the five types of abuse that include; exploitation, violence marginalization, cultural imperialism, and powerlessness (Lerner, 1993).1 However, Gerda Lerner’s mainly explores the origin of women’s subsidiary roles to men in society. Learner’s article mainly focuses on the Neolithic period. During this period, women were exchanged between tribes for pragmatism purposes. However, for the purposes of this essay and argument, this paper will discuss and focus on the aspect and issues of cultural imperialism and exploitation as put forth by Gerda Young comparatively against Iris Young opinions. In the natural and conventional wisdom, it refers to the fact that section or part of the society would feel superior and domineering or overbearing over and above the others. This happens in the instances where a part of the world would feel that their lifestyle and the way in which they live is the best, and the cultures of other people are inferior. Thus, in the tail end, it follows that the people who feel that their culture or in principle their way of life is the superior start to impose on the others. In so doing, they would start to coerce and intimidate others whom they consider culturally inferior to change and embrace their lifestyle and method of lifestyle. The same also extends to the gender roles where the males domineer or pose an overbearing approach to the lives of women. This happens since the men in most cases seek to define and control what ought to constitute the gender performance and role of the women (Lerner, 2005).2 For instance the men may seek to define the roles or women relative to domestic and office duties. This is where the men may seek to dominate or use their conventional masculine ability to control and impose

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Customer Satisfaction for Chinese Restaurants in the US

Customer Satisfaction for Chinese Restaurants in the US Introduction: Aim of Project: Perception of Chinese restaurant in the U.S: What affects customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions? Objectives: To analyse the customers behavioural intentions for Chinese restaurant in U.S. To analyse the perception of Chinese restaurant in the U.S. To evaluate and analyse what affects customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The United States is a multicultural and multiethnic nation and this national trend of diversity is expected to consistently increase (Josiam and Monteiro, 2004; Sukalakamala and Boyce, 2007). One reflection of this cultural and ethnic diversity is the variety and prosperity of ethnic restaurants in the American foodservice market. The U.S. ethnic food market generates $75 billion in annual sales, around 65% of which is attributed to the foodservice industry (US ethnic food market, 2005). Yet, the fast growth of ethnic restaurants is not driven entirely by the growing number of new immigrants. In fact, 75% of ethnic food consumption comes from non-ethnic customers (US ethnic food market, 2005). As lifestyles change and dining out becomes more and more commonplace, many customers desire new flavours and experiences. Along with this popularity is the rapid development of Chinese restaurants. According to Chinese restaurants news (2007), there are about 43,139 Chinese restaurants in the United States, which is more than the total number of all McDonalds Wendys and burger king domestic outlets combined. Chinese restaurants generate over $17.5 billion annual sales, accounting for about one fourth of overall annual sales generated by ethnic restaurants in the U.S. (Chinese Restaurant News, 2007). Known for its good taste and great value for the price, Chinese cuisine is among the â€Å"big three† most popular ethnic cuisines in the U.S. food service market (National Restaurant association, 1995). It is estimated that 90% of the American population has tried Chinese food and 63% of Americans eat Chinese food each month (George, 2001). Facing more sophisticated American consumers and increasing competition in the restaurant industry, Chinese restaurants can no longer succeed by depending on good taste or low price alone. According to National Restaurant Association (2000a,b), due to an increased familiarity with ethnic food. American consumers attitudes toward ethnic cuisine have recently changed. Today, an exotic experience is not enough to attract consumers to an ethnic restaurant. Customers are no longer willing to trade off inferior service or atmosphere for an opportunity to try new flavours. They prefer an excellent overall dining experience. Moreover, Chinese restaurants are facing increasing challenges from other emerging Asian restaurants and from the changing tastes of American customers who prefer healthy or spicy food. Therefore, a better understanding of the key attributes influencing customer satisfaction and post dining behavioural intentions in Chinese restaurants will provide important practical implications for Chinese restaurants operators. Literature review: At all stages in the elaboration of a dissertation, the author must exert control over both the content and the way it is organised. The literature review is what shows that the author understand the chosen topic and keeps to the aim. ‘In researching for your dissertation or project, you will generally be expected to source material for yourself says MacMillan (2007, p.61). Meanwhile, Swetnam (2005, p.76) gives examples and his definition is that ‘the literature review is central to the dissertation and in all styles of work. It has a number of functions, for example, it shows that you have read widely around your chosen topic, it demonstrates your critical understanding of the theory; it informs and modifies your own research. White (2006, p.83) gives a newer definition that the literature review ‘will help you to discuss the dissertation in its relevant context, together with any theoretical frameworks which may be involved. It may also trigger your imagination an d help you set the work in a new and different light because the author learns and understands more, which can stimulate further analysis. Research Method: The researcher need way to get the data will be from books, magazines, newspaper and through internet. As there are so many websites, no. of books, newspaper and magazines from where researcher will get updated information regarding the research. Through qualitative method the researcher will be able to find out easier way for doing research and by getting direct information related with the research. And the other thing is that in qualitative method accuracy rate is good not all time but, mostly.Quantitative method also very helpful to do the research. Code of Ethics: The world tourism organisation developed a code of ethics. This is recognition of the need to enshrine many of the principles of global action on the environment and the rights of tourists and workers. The basic principles inherit in the code are: 2 Table of contents Implementation of the principles of the code of ethics of hospitality. Mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies. Restaurant as a beneficial activity for host countries and communities. Summary: This work will introduced the conceptual issues associated with the research of â€Å"customer satisfaction from Chinese restaurant in US† and also demonstrate what is happening with people of the local community. Chapter: 2 Literature Review Literature Review: An Introduction At all stages in the elaboration of a dissertation, the author must exert control over both the content and the way it is organised. The literature review is what shows that the author understand the chosen topic and keeps to the aim. ‘In researching for your dissertation or project, you will generally be expected to source material for yourself says MacMillan (2007, p.61). Meanwhile, Swetnam (2005, p.76) gives examples and his definition is that ‘the literature review is central to the dissertation and in all styles of work. It has a number of functions, for example, it shows that you have read widely around your chosen topic, it demonstrates your critical understanding of the theory, it informs and modifies your own research. White (2006, p.83) gives a newer definition that the literature review ‘will help you to discuss the dissertation in its relevant context, together with any theoretical frameworks which may be involved. It may also trigger your imagination an d help you set the work in a new and different light because the author learns and understands more, which can stimulate further analysis. Chapter: 1 Ethnic cuisine development and Chinese restaurants in the US. In the past few decades, with the influx of new immigrants as well as diversifying tastes of Americans, ethnic foods have become widely available and increasingly popular in the U.S. food service market (Josiam and monteiro, 2004). Traditional ethnic cuisines such as Italian, Mexican and Cantonese Chinese have become so familiar to American customer that they are perceived as mainstream American foods (Mills, 2000). In the meanwhile, many emerging ethnic cuisines such as Caribbean, Mediterranean and Pan Asian have also gained wide acceptance in recent years (US ethnic food market, 2005). Chinese cuisine arrived in the U.S. with the first railroad construction workers brought over to the west coast of the U.S. in the nineteenth century (Freeman, 2008). From the first Cantonese style Chinese restaurant opened in San Francisco in 1849, it rapidly penetrated towns and cities all over the U.S. and became part of the American experience (Chen and Bowen, 2001). Cantonese style cuisine, characterised by its light sweet and sour flavours, is the most popular Chinese cuisine in the U.S. In the recent years, other styles of Chinese cuisine have also become familiar to American customers, such as Szechwan, Hunan and Mandarin styles. The first two styles are famous for their hot and spicy flavours, while the last one is characterised by light, elegant and mildly seasoned foods (George, 2001). According to the National Restaurant Association (1995), customer perceived Chinese cuisine as a great value for the price, good for carryout, rich in flavour and difficult to prepare at hom e. Although there a few Chinese restaurant chains operating in the U.S. such as P. F. Changs China Bistro and Panda Express, most Chinese restaurant has a Chinese name outside, is decorated with Chinese styled pictures and artifacts, such as Chinese brush landscape paintings red lanterns, offers a menu printed in both Chinese and English, and provides Chinese characterised tableware, such as chopsticks and Chinese restaurants have been facing intense competition among themselves due to fast development and expansion in the U.S., as well as from other emerging Asian restaurants such as Indian, Japanese, Korean, Thai and Vietnamese ( Jang et al., 2009). Thus, maintaining customer satisfaction and repeat patronage may be more important for Chinese restaurants than ever before. Chapter: 2 Customer satisfaction and related theories The topic of â€Å"customer satisfaction† has held a significant position in the marketing literature over the decades since satisfied customers can be generate long-term benefits for companies, including customer loyalty and sustained profitability (Homburg et al., 2006). Researchers have explained the mechanism of customer satisfaction with number of distinct theories, such as expectancy-disconfirmation theory (Oliver, 1981), contrast theory (Howard and Sheth, 1969), assimilation or cognitive dissonance theory (Anderson, 1973), equity theory (Oliver and Swan, 1989), and value percept theory (Westbrook and Reilly, 1983). Among them, the most widely accepted theory is the expectancy disconfirmation theory. According to this theory, customers satisfaction judgements are the results of comparisons between customers expectations and perceived performance. If the perceived performance exceeds the expectation, the expectation is positively disconfirmed and the customer is satisfie d. On the contrary, if the perceived performance falls short of the expectation, the expectation is negatively disconfirmed and the customer is dissatisfied. Another influential theory for customer satisfaction is the equity theory. This theory suggests that satisfaction occurs when customers perceived that they have obtained more benefits compared to their cost (e.g. money, time and effort) and perceived value is an appropriate factor in measuring satisfaction (Oliver and Swan, 1989; Yuan and Jang, 2008). Another commonly used theory, the three factor theory, provides a basic explanation for the structure of customer satisfaction. This theory claims that three independent satisfaction factors influence customer satisfaction in different ways (Kano, 1984; Matzler and Sauerwein, 2002). Basic factors are minimum requirement for satisfaction. Failure to fulfil the minimum requirements causes dissatisfaction, whereas fulfilling or exceeding them does not necessarily lead to satisfaction. Excitement factors increase customer satisfaction if delivered but do not cause dissatisfaction if not delivered. Performance factors lead to satisfaction if performance is high and to dissatisfaction if performance is low (Fuller and Matzler, 2008). This theory has been validated empirical studies (e.g. Fuchs, 2004; Matzler et al., 2006) and could provide an additional perspective for understanding the effects of restaurant attributes on customer satisfaction. Basic factors can be seen as the prerequisite s for the satisfaction, signifying that customer take that for granted. Performance factors are a critical competitive area and directly related to customers explicit needs and wants. Excitement factors are unexpected by customers, so they can be a â€Å"surprise gift† that generates extra delight (Fuller and Matzler, 2008). Chapter: 3 Behavioural Intentions Behavioural intention can be defined as the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). According to the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), behavioural intention is the motivational component of a volitional behavioural and is highly correlated with behaviour itself (Jang and Feng, 2007). Although there are still arguments about the level of correlation between behavioural intentions and actual actions, it seems to be generally agreed that behavioural intention is a reasonable variable for predicting future behaviour (Quelette and Wood, 1988). Thus, a good understanding of the determinants of favourable post-dinning behavioural intentions such as saying positive things about the restaurant, recommending the restaurant to others, and repeat purchasing can provide practical guidance for restaurant practitioners. Another construct that is highly related to behavioural intentions is customer satisfaction. It is regarded as one of the key antecedents of post purchase behavioural intentions because customer satisfaction has a positive effect on the customers attitude towards the product or service and can reinforce the customers conscious effort to purchase the product or service again in the future (Oliver, 1989, 1999). However, previous studies have also suggested that factors that influence customer satisfaction are not always in accordance with factors influencing customer behavioural intention, for example, Sulek and Hensley (2004) found that food, atmosphere, and fairness of the seating order were all significant predictors of a customers overall dining satisfaction, but only food quality predicted post-dining behavioural intention. In examining food quality in restaurants, Namkung and Jang (2007) reported that food temperature had a significant effect on customer satisfaction but no effec t on behavioural intention. Conversely, healthy options were a direct determinant of behavioural intentions but did not influence customer satisfaction. Therefore, there is a practical need to investigate the effects of restaurant attributes on both customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Chapter: 4 Factors influencing customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions in restaurants Reuland et al. (1985) suggested that hospitality services consist of a harmonious mixture of three elements: the material product, the behaviour and attitude of the employees, and the environment. Berry et al. (2002) also proposed three categories of cues that present themselves in the service experience: functional cues (technical quality of service), mechanic cues (nonhuman elements in the service environment) and humanic cues (behaviour of service employees). Based on these propositions, the basic restaurant attributes can be said to be include food, service and environment. Though a literature review of dining satisfaction and behaviour intention, all three basic elements were found to directly or indirectly contribute to customers overall satisfaction with a restaurant experience and their post dining behavioural intentions. Chapter: 5 Food Quality As the core product of a restaurant, food plays a pivotal role in the restaurant experience. Food quality has been generally accepted as major factor influencing customer satisfaction and post dining behavioural intention. For example, Dube et al. (1994) measured the relative importance of seven restaurant attributes in repeat purchase intention in an upscale restaurant setting and found that food quality was far more important to restaurant customers than all others attributes, Sulek and Hensley (2004) investigated the relative importance of food and physical setting, and service in a full-service restaurant and found that food quality was the most important factor influencing satisfaction and the only factor predicting behavioural intention. Namkung and Jang (2007) evaluated the relationship of individual attributes that constitute food quality (e.g. food presentation, menu variety, healthy options, taste, food freshness and temperature) with customer satisfaction and behavioural i ntentions. The findings indicated that food presentation, taste and temperature were significantly related to customer satisfaction whereas food presentation, taste and healthy options (instead of temperature) were significant predictors of behavioural intention. Besides the above- mentioned six individual attributes, â€Å"food safety† is also an important cue for evaluating food quality. â€Å"Although food-safety defects are not always immediately apparent, customers do tend to notice undercooked food, food with an off taste, or foreign material in their food† (Sulek and Hensley, 2004). Thus, food may serve as the most basic and lowest standard when judging quality. Service Quality: In the service literature, perceived service quality is defined as the customers judgement of the overall excellence or superiority of the service (Zeithaml, 2008). It is the customers subjective evaluation, resulting from a comparison of expectations and perceived performance. SERVQUAL (Parasuraman et al, 2008) is the instrument most often used for measuring perceived service quality in the marketing literature. It consists of five service dimension, namely, tangibles (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), and responsiveness (willingness to help customers and provide prompt service), assurance (knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence) and empathy (caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers). To adapt SERVQUAL to the restaurant industry, Stevens et al. (2005) modified several items from the original SERVQUAL and d eveloped DINESERV to measure perceived service quality in restaurants. In the restaurant industry, since customers not only evaluate the quality of food but also the service encounters during their dining experience, perceived service quality is seen as another core determinant of customers satisfaction and behavioural intention. For example Kivela et al. (2009) proposed a comprehensive model for dining satisfaction and return patronage. Their study indicated that the probability of return patronage was dependent on customers satisfaction with five aspects of a restaurant: first the last impressions, service quality, and ambience quality, food quality and feeling comfortable eating there and reservation and parking. Ladhari et al. (2008) investigated determinants of dining satisfaction and post-dining behavioural intentions, and concluded that perceived service quality influenced customer satisfaction through both positive and negative emotions, Customer satisfaction, in turn, influ enced recommendations, customer loyalty and willingness to pay more. Their results suggested that compared with food quality/reliability, physical design and price, service responsiveness was the most important contributor to customer satisfaction. ATMOSPHERICS Atmospherics is perceived as the quality of the surroundings space. According to Kotler (2006) it is the conscious designing of space to produce specific emotional effects in buyers that enhance their purchase probability. Atmospherics is made up of a set of elements, such as music, lighting, colour and scent. Research in environmental psychology has suggested that atmospherics has a powerful impact on peoples emotions, attitude and behaviour. Mehrabian and Russell (2005) first introduced a theoretical model to explain the impact of environmental stimuli on individual behaviour. The model claims that the physical environment could influence peoples emotional response (such as pleasure and arousal), which in turn elicits approach or avoidance behaviour toward the environment. The model has gained consistent support from the numerous empirical studies in different service settings, such as retail stores and hotels (Baker and Cameroon, 2006). In the restaurant context, Ryu and Jang (2007) explored the combined effect of multiple atmospheric variables on behavioural intentions in upscale restaurants. Their findings supported that ambience (example music, aroma, and temperature) and employee appearance had the most important influence n customers post dining behavioural intentions. OTHER FACTORS-PRICE FAIRNESS AND AUTHENCITY Besides food, service and atmospherics, perceived price fairness could be another factor that influences the customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions (Bei and Chiao, 2007). It is based on consumer internal reference prices, which could be generated by the last price paid, the price most frequently paid and the market prices in similar transactions (Kahneman et al.2006). This principle posits that firms are entitled to a reasonable profit and customers are entitled to a reasonable price. An increase in price is preserved to be fair if it is due to a cost increase. Otherwise, it is preserved to be unfair if the price is increased without any underlying cost increase. Perceived fairness of price is found to be positively related to customer satisfaction and loyalty (Bei and Chiao, 2007), whereas perceived unfairness of price can lead to immediate negative attitudinal and behavioural responses such as dissatisfaction, complaining and switching to other providers (Xia et al. 2005) . Authenticity is an attribute that could be specifically relevant to ethnic restaurants. Authenticity refers to whether the food and ethnic origin. In other words, the environment and cuisines are not adjusted to meet local tastes and customers who are familiar with the culture of the ethnic origin can be judging its authenticity (Ebster and Guist 2006). Compared with Americans restaurants, ethnic restaurants usually make use of ethnic art, decor, music and customers. Some scholars even describe ethnic restaurants as cultural ambassadors of the home country and the dining experience in an ethnic as culinary tourism (Wood and Munoz, 2006). Summary Based on the literature review, this study investigated customer perception of Chinese restaurant in terms of food related attributes service related attributes, atmosphere related attributes and other attributes (price and authenticity), and identified the key attributes affecting customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Research Method Chapter: 3 Research Method Research Method Introduction: Methodology is the study of methods and it raises all sorts of philosophical questions about what it is possible for researcher to know and how valid their claims to knowledge might be (Fisher, 2007, p.40) The researcher has to consider the nature of the setting being studied or the ‘question being asked, as well as any possible limitations on the study, such as time and resources. Resources may be human being or monetary resources, or research tools such as computers or computer assisted telephone interviewing laboratories. There also needs to be to be a match between the study topic and methodology. For example, a research question that seeks to determine the size of the visiting friends and relatives market in an area would use a quantitative methodology, not a qualitative methodology, because the focus is on quantification. A methodology is a systematic and orderly approach taken towards the collection and analysis of data so that information can be obtained from those data. Data are raw, specific, undigested and therefore largely meaningless; information, in contrast, is what you get when data have been arranged in such a way that uncertainty is lessened, queries resolved, and questions answered. In the words of Jankowicz (2005, p.220) â€Å"Everything you do in your empirical work should be directed to the one end of gathering and presenting data from which information can be easily and simply derived†. Veal (2006, p. 125) The research approach: The author will use primary sources in the dissertation. Two interviews will be conducted: with one member of Dancing Dragon, Teesside (one of manager ) with one regular customer of Dancing Dragon restaurant The two chosen people one from Dancing Dragon and another from a regular customer of Chinese restaurant. Therefore, that customer will be capable of answering all questions and give new examples. The experience for the author is important because the answers will be based on true stories, examples and theories that are necessary for the dissertation. The interviews will be done by email and telephone, which could give the author an opportunity to gain some extra information if the interview exceeds the prepared questions and some new information will come from the interviews. Practicality of research: The interviews are a very good research method and are also practical. The information gained in the process is something new because it is primary source, then from secondary source, which must be checked. Primary source data can help the help to avoid incorrect or approximate information to learn and present further on, there is no need for the author to check it before including it in the dissertation. Also, Face to face interview can also help the author to conduct the interviews on time. The appointments must be made on time and dates are set, interviewees will not have chance to put off the interviews. Finally, it is an interesting process for the author. Sitting with a lot of books or magazine articles in the learning centre sometimes does not arise any interest in the author and the creativity in this case is poor, but to go out and to speak with people makes impressive ideas and final work can differ a lot. Five Codes of Ethics: The author of this dissertation will comply with five codes of ethics, and they will also be the limitations: will not collect information in such a way that participants are not aware of it will explain for what purpose information is required will choose to interview random individuals and will not exert pressure of any kind on them will not change information provided by participants will maintain confidentially at the request of participants The author will strictly follow the Five Codes of Ethics to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding that could develop between the author and interviewees. It is important to respect the interviewees wishes if they have them. It is the best way to say â€Å"Thank You† to respect for the time they have devoted and the knowledge for the author. Methodology: ‘Methodology is the philosophical framework with which the research is conducted or the foundation upon which the research is based. To word it differently, methodology is the rationale for the particular methods you use in your researching and in that type of research in general says Berman (2006, p. 12). That means that methodology is needed to provide the author with the means to find the research needed for the written dissertation. For the purpose of this research, the primary data will consist of two interviews and they will cover all three objectives, first, with one regular customer of ‘Dancing dragon restaurant and the second with one member of the Chinese restaurant. The interviews will be conducted through email and telephone , and will be formal. There will be 10 questions. The interviews will give advice from people who have substantial experience in the industry. Primary and Secondary Data: Data can be drawn from both primary and secondary sources. A secondary source of information already exists and has been gathered by someone else. Official statistics, previous studies, journal, magazine and newspapers articles are all sources of secondary information, and will be used in the research project for findings, analysis and recommendations. There are many styles of primary research experiments, ethnographic research and surveys. Bedford (2006, p.61) defines ‘primary data which comes from the source at the time of the event; it may be a report, newspaper article, film footage, or a live or recorded interview. That means that primary data are something that is not from sources that are already available to each student, but what he/she has studied or gained from the information by doing some research on his /her own. Many courses of study require students to engage in some form of primary research activity. In this dissertation, there will be questionnaires for people selected for the research. An advantage is that information which will be found is something new and unreached, but the limitations may be about the confidentiality of the interviewees if they ask for it. Quantitative and Qualitative Data: Quantitative data encompass a group of methods focusing on quantities and on numbers, ‘scientific research relies heavily on quantitative data. This means it focuses on changes or differences that can be measured. Standardised measurements are used such as number, time, weight, and length, says Cottrell (2008, p.206), so that results are easy to compare unbiased. This source of data is very important and is well appropriate for the project, but at the end ‘check and verify the results, looking for errors and odd results adds Moore (2006, p.139). However, qualitative research can also enhance the rigour and credibility of quantitative research. Qualitative research is ‘founded on the belief that social phenomenon (belief and experiences) can be explained with reference to the wider contexts of lived lives adds Burns (2008, p.231). He adopts the stance that people have knowledge of their own lives and that they can talk about those. Questionnaire and Interview Design: There are two types of interviews, which are classified according to the degree of flexibility. One is unstructured and the second one is structured. ‘The strength of unstructured interview is the almost complete freedom they provide in terms of content and structure. You may formulate questions and raise issues on the spur of the moment, depending upon what occurs to you in the context of the discussion explains Kumar (2005, p.123). A structured interview, continues Kumar (2005, p.126), is when ‘the researcher asks a predetermined set of questions, using the same wording and order of questions, using the same wording and order of questions as specified in the interview schedule is a written list of questions, open ended or close ended, prepared for use by an interviewer in a person to person interaction. In this project, there will be structured interviews with open ended questions, because there are only 20 questions to gain the information needed for the project. T his means that the research methods for this project are qualitative. Summary: Basically methodology is the rationale for the particular methods the researcher uses in the research to gather the needed information. For this report, author will obtain information from these methods primary Findings Chapter: 5 Research Findings Findings Introduction: Findings: Demographic profile of respondents: Source: mintel 2007 Table one show the results of the respondents demographic and dining profiles. Among the 284 valid respondents, females accounted for 52.5% of diners. The average respondent was 37 years old. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (60.2%), followed by Asian (32%) and other (7.8%). Respondents were most likely to go to a Chinese restaurant with their family (47.6%), followed by friends (27.1%) and relatives (15.2%) and were less likely to dine with business colleagues (2.1%) or by themsel Customer Satisfaction for Chinese Restaurants in the US Customer Satisfaction for Chinese Restaurants in the US Introduction: Aim of Project: Perception of Chinese restaurant in the U.S: What affects customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions? Objectives: To analyse the customers behavioural intentions for Chinese restaurant in U.S. To analyse the perception of Chinese restaurant in the U.S. To evaluate and analyse what affects customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The United States is a multicultural and multiethnic nation and this national trend of diversity is expected to consistently increase (Josiam and Monteiro, 2004; Sukalakamala and Boyce, 2007). One reflection of this cultural and ethnic diversity is the variety and prosperity of ethnic restaurants in the American foodservice market. The U.S. ethnic food market generates $75 billion in annual sales, around 65% of which is attributed to the foodservice industry (US ethnic food market, 2005). Yet, the fast growth of ethnic restaurants is not driven entirely by the growing number of new immigrants. In fact, 75% of ethnic food consumption comes from non-ethnic customers (US ethnic food market, 2005). As lifestyles change and dining out becomes more and more commonplace, many customers desire new flavours and experiences. Along with this popularity is the rapid development of Chinese restaurants. According to Chinese restaurants news (2007), there are about 43,139 Chinese restaurants in the United States, which is more than the total number of all McDonalds Wendys and burger king domestic outlets combined. Chinese restaurants generate over $17.5 billion annual sales, accounting for about one fourth of overall annual sales generated by ethnic restaurants in the U.S. (Chinese Restaurant News, 2007). Known for its good taste and great value for the price, Chinese cuisine is among the â€Å"big three† most popular ethnic cuisines in the U.S. food service market (National Restaurant association, 1995). It is estimated that 90% of the American population has tried Chinese food and 63% of Americans eat Chinese food each month (George, 2001). Facing more sophisticated American consumers and increasing competition in the restaurant industry, Chinese restaurants can no longer succeed by depending on good taste or low price alone. According to National Restaurant Association (2000a,b), due to an increased familiarity with ethnic food. American consumers attitudes toward ethnic cuisine have recently changed. Today, an exotic experience is not enough to attract consumers to an ethnic restaurant. Customers are no longer willing to trade off inferior service or atmosphere for an opportunity to try new flavours. They prefer an excellent overall dining experience. Moreover, Chinese restaurants are facing increasing challenges from other emerging Asian restaurants and from the changing tastes of American customers who prefer healthy or spicy food. Therefore, a better understanding of the key attributes influencing customer satisfaction and post dining behavioural intentions in Chinese restaurants will provide important practical implications for Chinese restaurants operators. Literature review: At all stages in the elaboration of a dissertation, the author must exert control over both the content and the way it is organised. The literature review is what shows that the author understand the chosen topic and keeps to the aim. ‘In researching for your dissertation or project, you will generally be expected to source material for yourself says MacMillan (2007, p.61). Meanwhile, Swetnam (2005, p.76) gives examples and his definition is that ‘the literature review is central to the dissertation and in all styles of work. It has a number of functions, for example, it shows that you have read widely around your chosen topic, it demonstrates your critical understanding of the theory; it informs and modifies your own research. White (2006, p.83) gives a newer definition that the literature review ‘will help you to discuss the dissertation in its relevant context, together with any theoretical frameworks which may be involved. It may also trigger your imagination an d help you set the work in a new and different light because the author learns and understands more, which can stimulate further analysis. Research Method: The researcher need way to get the data will be from books, magazines, newspaper and through internet. As there are so many websites, no. of books, newspaper and magazines from where researcher will get updated information regarding the research. Through qualitative method the researcher will be able to find out easier way for doing research and by getting direct information related with the research. And the other thing is that in qualitative method accuracy rate is good not all time but, mostly.Quantitative method also very helpful to do the research. Code of Ethics: The world tourism organisation developed a code of ethics. This is recognition of the need to enshrine many of the principles of global action on the environment and the rights of tourists and workers. The basic principles inherit in the code are: 2 Table of contents Implementation of the principles of the code of ethics of hospitality. Mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies. Restaurant as a beneficial activity for host countries and communities. Summary: This work will introduced the conceptual issues associated with the research of â€Å"customer satisfaction from Chinese restaurant in US† and also demonstrate what is happening with people of the local community. Chapter: 2 Literature Review Literature Review: An Introduction At all stages in the elaboration of a dissertation, the author must exert control over both the content and the way it is organised. The literature review is what shows that the author understand the chosen topic and keeps to the aim. ‘In researching for your dissertation or project, you will generally be expected to source material for yourself says MacMillan (2007, p.61). Meanwhile, Swetnam (2005, p.76) gives examples and his definition is that ‘the literature review is central to the dissertation and in all styles of work. It has a number of functions, for example, it shows that you have read widely around your chosen topic, it demonstrates your critical understanding of the theory, it informs and modifies your own research. White (2006, p.83) gives a newer definition that the literature review ‘will help you to discuss the dissertation in its relevant context, together with any theoretical frameworks which may be involved. It may also trigger your imagination an d help you set the work in a new and different light because the author learns and understands more, which can stimulate further analysis. Chapter: 1 Ethnic cuisine development and Chinese restaurants in the US. In the past few decades, with the influx of new immigrants as well as diversifying tastes of Americans, ethnic foods have become widely available and increasingly popular in the U.S. food service market (Josiam and monteiro, 2004). Traditional ethnic cuisines such as Italian, Mexican and Cantonese Chinese have become so familiar to American customer that they are perceived as mainstream American foods (Mills, 2000). In the meanwhile, many emerging ethnic cuisines such as Caribbean, Mediterranean and Pan Asian have also gained wide acceptance in recent years (US ethnic food market, 2005). Chinese cuisine arrived in the U.S. with the first railroad construction workers brought over to the west coast of the U.S. in the nineteenth century (Freeman, 2008). From the first Cantonese style Chinese restaurant opened in San Francisco in 1849, it rapidly penetrated towns and cities all over the U.S. and became part of the American experience (Chen and Bowen, 2001). Cantonese style cuisine, characterised by its light sweet and sour flavours, is the most popular Chinese cuisine in the U.S. In the recent years, other styles of Chinese cuisine have also become familiar to American customers, such as Szechwan, Hunan and Mandarin styles. The first two styles are famous for their hot and spicy flavours, while the last one is characterised by light, elegant and mildly seasoned foods (George, 2001). According to the National Restaurant Association (1995), customer perceived Chinese cuisine as a great value for the price, good for carryout, rich in flavour and difficult to prepare at hom e. Although there a few Chinese restaurant chains operating in the U.S. such as P. F. Changs China Bistro and Panda Express, most Chinese restaurant has a Chinese name outside, is decorated with Chinese styled pictures and artifacts, such as Chinese brush landscape paintings red lanterns, offers a menu printed in both Chinese and English, and provides Chinese characterised tableware, such as chopsticks and Chinese restaurants have been facing intense competition among themselves due to fast development and expansion in the U.S., as well as from other emerging Asian restaurants such as Indian, Japanese, Korean, Thai and Vietnamese ( Jang et al., 2009). Thus, maintaining customer satisfaction and repeat patronage may be more important for Chinese restaurants than ever before. Chapter: 2 Customer satisfaction and related theories The topic of â€Å"customer satisfaction† has held a significant position in the marketing literature over the decades since satisfied customers can be generate long-term benefits for companies, including customer loyalty and sustained profitability (Homburg et al., 2006). Researchers have explained the mechanism of customer satisfaction with number of distinct theories, such as expectancy-disconfirmation theory (Oliver, 1981), contrast theory (Howard and Sheth, 1969), assimilation or cognitive dissonance theory (Anderson, 1973), equity theory (Oliver and Swan, 1989), and value percept theory (Westbrook and Reilly, 1983). Among them, the most widely accepted theory is the expectancy disconfirmation theory. According to this theory, customers satisfaction judgements are the results of comparisons between customers expectations and perceived performance. If the perceived performance exceeds the expectation, the expectation is positively disconfirmed and the customer is satisfie d. On the contrary, if the perceived performance falls short of the expectation, the expectation is negatively disconfirmed and the customer is dissatisfied. Another influential theory for customer satisfaction is the equity theory. This theory suggests that satisfaction occurs when customers perceived that they have obtained more benefits compared to their cost (e.g. money, time and effort) and perceived value is an appropriate factor in measuring satisfaction (Oliver and Swan, 1989; Yuan and Jang, 2008). Another commonly used theory, the three factor theory, provides a basic explanation for the structure of customer satisfaction. This theory claims that three independent satisfaction factors influence customer satisfaction in different ways (Kano, 1984; Matzler and Sauerwein, 2002). Basic factors are minimum requirement for satisfaction. Failure to fulfil the minimum requirements causes dissatisfaction, whereas fulfilling or exceeding them does not necessarily lead to satisfaction. Excitement factors increase customer satisfaction if delivered but do not cause dissatisfaction if not delivered. Performance factors lead to satisfaction if performance is high and to dissatisfaction if performance is low (Fuller and Matzler, 2008). This theory has been validated empirical studies (e.g. Fuchs, 2004; Matzler et al., 2006) and could provide an additional perspective for understanding the effects of restaurant attributes on customer satisfaction. Basic factors can be seen as the prerequisite s for the satisfaction, signifying that customer take that for granted. Performance factors are a critical competitive area and directly related to customers explicit needs and wants. Excitement factors are unexpected by customers, so they can be a â€Å"surprise gift† that generates extra delight (Fuller and Matzler, 2008). Chapter: 3 Behavioural Intentions Behavioural intention can be defined as the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). According to the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), behavioural intention is the motivational component of a volitional behavioural and is highly correlated with behaviour itself (Jang and Feng, 2007). Although there are still arguments about the level of correlation between behavioural intentions and actual actions, it seems to be generally agreed that behavioural intention is a reasonable variable for predicting future behaviour (Quelette and Wood, 1988). Thus, a good understanding of the determinants of favourable post-dinning behavioural intentions such as saying positive things about the restaurant, recommending the restaurant to others, and repeat purchasing can provide practical guidance for restaurant practitioners. Another construct that is highly related to behavioural intentions is customer satisfaction. It is regarded as one of the key antecedents of post purchase behavioural intentions because customer satisfaction has a positive effect on the customers attitude towards the product or service and can reinforce the customers conscious effort to purchase the product or service again in the future (Oliver, 1989, 1999). However, previous studies have also suggested that factors that influence customer satisfaction are not always in accordance with factors influencing customer behavioural intention, for example, Sulek and Hensley (2004) found that food, atmosphere, and fairness of the seating order were all significant predictors of a customers overall dining satisfaction, but only food quality predicted post-dining behavioural intention. In examining food quality in restaurants, Namkung and Jang (2007) reported that food temperature had a significant effect on customer satisfaction but no effec t on behavioural intention. Conversely, healthy options were a direct determinant of behavioural intentions but did not influence customer satisfaction. Therefore, there is a practical need to investigate the effects of restaurant attributes on both customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Chapter: 4 Factors influencing customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions in restaurants Reuland et al. (1985) suggested that hospitality services consist of a harmonious mixture of three elements: the material product, the behaviour and attitude of the employees, and the environment. Berry et al. (2002) also proposed three categories of cues that present themselves in the service experience: functional cues (technical quality of service), mechanic cues (nonhuman elements in the service environment) and humanic cues (behaviour of service employees). Based on these propositions, the basic restaurant attributes can be said to be include food, service and environment. Though a literature review of dining satisfaction and behaviour intention, all three basic elements were found to directly or indirectly contribute to customers overall satisfaction with a restaurant experience and their post dining behavioural intentions. Chapter: 5 Food Quality As the core product of a restaurant, food plays a pivotal role in the restaurant experience. Food quality has been generally accepted as major factor influencing customer satisfaction and post dining behavioural intention. For example, Dube et al. (1994) measured the relative importance of seven restaurant attributes in repeat purchase intention in an upscale restaurant setting and found that food quality was far more important to restaurant customers than all others attributes, Sulek and Hensley (2004) investigated the relative importance of food and physical setting, and service in a full-service restaurant and found that food quality was the most important factor influencing satisfaction and the only factor predicting behavioural intention. Namkung and Jang (2007) evaluated the relationship of individual attributes that constitute food quality (e.g. food presentation, menu variety, healthy options, taste, food freshness and temperature) with customer satisfaction and behavioural i ntentions. The findings indicated that food presentation, taste and temperature were significantly related to customer satisfaction whereas food presentation, taste and healthy options (instead of temperature) were significant predictors of behavioural intention. Besides the above- mentioned six individual attributes, â€Å"food safety† is also an important cue for evaluating food quality. â€Å"Although food-safety defects are not always immediately apparent, customers do tend to notice undercooked food, food with an off taste, or foreign material in their food† (Sulek and Hensley, 2004). Thus, food may serve as the most basic and lowest standard when judging quality. Service Quality: In the service literature, perceived service quality is defined as the customers judgement of the overall excellence or superiority of the service (Zeithaml, 2008). It is the customers subjective evaluation, resulting from a comparison of expectations and perceived performance. SERVQUAL (Parasuraman et al, 2008) is the instrument most often used for measuring perceived service quality in the marketing literature. It consists of five service dimension, namely, tangibles (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), and responsiveness (willingness to help customers and provide prompt service), assurance (knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence) and empathy (caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers). To adapt SERVQUAL to the restaurant industry, Stevens et al. (2005) modified several items from the original SERVQUAL and d eveloped DINESERV to measure perceived service quality in restaurants. In the restaurant industry, since customers not only evaluate the quality of food but also the service encounters during their dining experience, perceived service quality is seen as another core determinant of customers satisfaction and behavioural intention. For example Kivela et al. (2009) proposed a comprehensive model for dining satisfaction and return patronage. Their study indicated that the probability of return patronage was dependent on customers satisfaction with five aspects of a restaurant: first the last impressions, service quality, and ambience quality, food quality and feeling comfortable eating there and reservation and parking. Ladhari et al. (2008) investigated determinants of dining satisfaction and post-dining behavioural intentions, and concluded that perceived service quality influenced customer satisfaction through both positive and negative emotions, Customer satisfaction, in turn, influ enced recommendations, customer loyalty and willingness to pay more. Their results suggested that compared with food quality/reliability, physical design and price, service responsiveness was the most important contributor to customer satisfaction. ATMOSPHERICS Atmospherics is perceived as the quality of the surroundings space. According to Kotler (2006) it is the conscious designing of space to produce specific emotional effects in buyers that enhance their purchase probability. Atmospherics is made up of a set of elements, such as music, lighting, colour and scent. Research in environmental psychology has suggested that atmospherics has a powerful impact on peoples emotions, attitude and behaviour. Mehrabian and Russell (2005) first introduced a theoretical model to explain the impact of environmental stimuli on individual behaviour. The model claims that the physical environment could influence peoples emotional response (such as pleasure and arousal), which in turn elicits approach or avoidance behaviour toward the environment. The model has gained consistent support from the numerous empirical studies in different service settings, such as retail stores and hotels (Baker and Cameroon, 2006). In the restaurant context, Ryu and Jang (2007) explored the combined effect of multiple atmospheric variables on behavioural intentions in upscale restaurants. Their findings supported that ambience (example music, aroma, and temperature) and employee appearance had the most important influence n customers post dining behavioural intentions. OTHER FACTORS-PRICE FAIRNESS AND AUTHENCITY Besides food, service and atmospherics, perceived price fairness could be another factor that influences the customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions (Bei and Chiao, 2007). It is based on consumer internal reference prices, which could be generated by the last price paid, the price most frequently paid and the market prices in similar transactions (Kahneman et al.2006). This principle posits that firms are entitled to a reasonable profit and customers are entitled to a reasonable price. An increase in price is preserved to be fair if it is due to a cost increase. Otherwise, it is preserved to be unfair if the price is increased without any underlying cost increase. Perceived fairness of price is found to be positively related to customer satisfaction and loyalty (Bei and Chiao, 2007), whereas perceived unfairness of price can lead to immediate negative attitudinal and behavioural responses such as dissatisfaction, complaining and switching to other providers (Xia et al. 2005) . Authenticity is an attribute that could be specifically relevant to ethnic restaurants. Authenticity refers to whether the food and ethnic origin. In other words, the environment and cuisines are not adjusted to meet local tastes and customers who are familiar with the culture of the ethnic origin can be judging its authenticity (Ebster and Guist 2006). Compared with Americans restaurants, ethnic restaurants usually make use of ethnic art, decor, music and customers. Some scholars even describe ethnic restaurants as cultural ambassadors of the home country and the dining experience in an ethnic as culinary tourism (Wood and Munoz, 2006). Summary Based on the literature review, this study investigated customer perception of Chinese restaurant in terms of food related attributes service related attributes, atmosphere related attributes and other attributes (price and authenticity), and identified the key attributes affecting customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Research Method Chapter: 3 Research Method Research Method Introduction: Methodology is the study of methods and it raises all sorts of philosophical questions about what it is possible for researcher to know and how valid their claims to knowledge might be (Fisher, 2007, p.40) The researcher has to consider the nature of the setting being studied or the ‘question being asked, as well as any possible limitations on the study, such as time and resources. Resources may be human being or monetary resources, or research tools such as computers or computer assisted telephone interviewing laboratories. There also needs to be to be a match between the study topic and methodology. For example, a research question that seeks to determine the size of the visiting friends and relatives market in an area would use a quantitative methodology, not a qualitative methodology, because the focus is on quantification. A methodology is a systematic and orderly approach taken towards the collection and analysis of data so that information can be obtained from those data. Data are raw, specific, undigested and therefore largely meaningless; information, in contrast, is what you get when data have been arranged in such a way that uncertainty is lessened, queries resolved, and questions answered. In the words of Jankowicz (2005, p.220) â€Å"Everything you do in your empirical work should be directed to the one end of gathering and presenting data from which information can be easily and simply derived†. Veal (2006, p. 125) The research approach: The author will use primary sources in the dissertation. Two interviews will be conducted: with one member of Dancing Dragon, Teesside (one of manager ) with one regular customer of Dancing Dragon restaurant The two chosen people one from Dancing Dragon and another from a regular customer of Chinese restaurant. Therefore, that customer will be capable of answering all questions and give new examples. The experience for the author is important because the answers will be based on true stories, examples and theories that are necessary for the dissertation. The interviews will be done by email and telephone, which could give the author an opportunity to gain some extra information if the interview exceeds the prepared questions and some new information will come from the interviews. Practicality of research: The interviews are a very good research method and are also practical. The information gained in the process is something new because it is primary source, then from secondary source, which must be checked. Primary source data can help the help to avoid incorrect or approximate information to learn and present further on, there is no need for the author to check it before including it in the dissertation. Also, Face to face interview can also help the author to conduct the interviews on time. The appointments must be made on time and dates are set, interviewees will not have chance to put off the interviews. Finally, it is an interesting process for the author. Sitting with a lot of books or magazine articles in the learning centre sometimes does not arise any interest in the author and the creativity in this case is poor, but to go out and to speak with people makes impressive ideas and final work can differ a lot. Five Codes of Ethics: The author of this dissertation will comply with five codes of ethics, and they will also be the limitations: will not collect information in such a way that participants are not aware of it will explain for what purpose information is required will choose to interview random individuals and will not exert pressure of any kind on them will not change information provided by participants will maintain confidentially at the request of participants The author will strictly follow the Five Codes of Ethics to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding that could develop between the author and interviewees. It is important to respect the interviewees wishes if they have them. It is the best way to say â€Å"Thank You† to respect for the time they have devoted and the knowledge for the author. Methodology: ‘Methodology is the philosophical framework with which the research is conducted or the foundation upon which the research is based. To word it differently, methodology is the rationale for the particular methods you use in your researching and in that type of research in general says Berman (2006, p. 12). That means that methodology is needed to provide the author with the means to find the research needed for the written dissertation. For the purpose of this research, the primary data will consist of two interviews and they will cover all three objectives, first, with one regular customer of ‘Dancing dragon restaurant and the second with one member of the Chinese restaurant. The interviews will be conducted through email and telephone , and will be formal. There will be 10 questions. The interviews will give advice from people who have substantial experience in the industry. Primary and Secondary Data: Data can be drawn from both primary and secondary sources. A secondary source of information already exists and has been gathered by someone else. Official statistics, previous studies, journal, magazine and newspapers articles are all sources of secondary information, and will be used in the research project for findings, analysis and recommendations. There are many styles of primary research experiments, ethnographic research and surveys. Bedford (2006, p.61) defines ‘primary data which comes from the source at the time of the event; it may be a report, newspaper article, film footage, or a live or recorded interview. That means that primary data are something that is not from sources that are already available to each student, but what he/she has studied or gained from the information by doing some research on his /her own. Many courses of study require students to engage in some form of primary research activity. In this dissertation, there will be questionnaires for people selected for the research. An advantage is that information which will be found is something new and unreached, but the limitations may be about the confidentiality of the interviewees if they ask for it. Quantitative and Qualitative Data: Quantitative data encompass a group of methods focusing on quantities and on numbers, ‘scientific research relies heavily on quantitative data. This means it focuses on changes or differences that can be measured. Standardised measurements are used such as number, time, weight, and length, says Cottrell (2008, p.206), so that results are easy to compare unbiased. This source of data is very important and is well appropriate for the project, but at the end ‘check and verify the results, looking for errors and odd results adds Moore (2006, p.139). However, qualitative research can also enhance the rigour and credibility of quantitative research. Qualitative research is ‘founded on the belief that social phenomenon (belief and experiences) can be explained with reference to the wider contexts of lived lives adds Burns (2008, p.231). He adopts the stance that people have knowledge of their own lives and that they can talk about those. Questionnaire and Interview Design: There are two types of interviews, which are classified according to the degree of flexibility. One is unstructured and the second one is structured. ‘The strength of unstructured interview is the almost complete freedom they provide in terms of content and structure. You may formulate questions and raise issues on the spur of the moment, depending upon what occurs to you in the context of the discussion explains Kumar (2005, p.123). A structured interview, continues Kumar (2005, p.126), is when ‘the researcher asks a predetermined set of questions, using the same wording and order of questions, using the same wording and order of questions as specified in the interview schedule is a written list of questions, open ended or close ended, prepared for use by an interviewer in a person to person interaction. In this project, there will be structured interviews with open ended questions, because there are only 20 questions to gain the information needed for the project. T his means that the research methods for this project are qualitative. Summary: Basically methodology is the rationale for the particular methods the researcher uses in the research to gather the needed information. For this report, author will obtain information from these methods primary Findings Chapter: 5 Research Findings Findings Introduction: Findings: Demographic profile of respondents: Source: mintel 2007 Table one show the results of the respondents demographic and dining profiles. Among the 284 valid respondents, females accounted for 52.5% of diners. The average respondent was 37 years old. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (60.2%), followed by Asian (32%) and other (7.8%). Respondents were most likely to go to a Chinese restaurant with their family (47.6%), followed by friends (27.1%) and relatives (15.2%) and were less likely to dine with business colleagues (2.1%) or by themsel

Friday, January 17, 2020

Family in African-American Literature Essay

In literary pieces such as Alice Walker’s story â€Å"Everyday Use†, Langston Hughes’ â€Å"My People†, and Robert Hayden’s poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, the theme of family relationships is significantly evident. In â€Å"Everyday Use†, Walker presents one stage and aspect of a family life when one adult child chooses to live on her own while the other one stays with the family. Hughes’ poem portrays his love for his people which he considers to be a family as a whole. Meanwhile, Hayden’s â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, talks about the narration and description of a boy about his father whom he is not well acquainted with. As the first piece speaks of a story about a family in relation to their heritage, the latter speaks of a boy’s reminiscence of a father who was never able to show his love directly to his children. These two aspects of family relationships reveal several angles to look upon.   Such family situations are influenced by authors’ own race and heritage. Alice Walker portrays the story of a fully grown-up daughter, Dee, who goes back to home to her home to visit her mother, Mrs. Johnson and her younger sister, Maggie. She arrives accompanied by an African American Muslim man who is currently dating her. She comes home to collect some family possessions which she intends to turn into artistic pieces to be exhibited in a museum. Meanwhile, her sister Maggie grimaces as her sister takes some of their personal belongings including a quilt that her mother has promised to give her as a wedding present. Dee tells her mother that Maggie would only ruin the quilt by using it everyday which puzzles Mrs. Johnson as she could not think of any way to use the quilt than to spread them. When Mrs. Johnson sees the sadness in her younger daughter’s eyes upon Dee taking the quilt, she snatches it away and gives it to Maggie. Dee walks away after claiming that their problem is they do not understand their own heritage (Walker). In this story, Walker portrays a family whose eldest daughter has become estranged from them. In the first part of the story, Mrs. Johnson recounts how Dee had hated living in their house and even almost set it on fire when she was young. The concept of a dysfunctional family is quite present here; however, it focuses more on the mother-child relationship rather than every member of the family. It is important to note that Walker made use of the damaged relationship of Dee to her mother and sister to show and illustrate the different types of African American people. On the other hand, Langston Hughes shows his love and appreciation for his people in his poem â€Å"My People†. He does not speak of family but his tone and use of words make it seem as if he is speaking of his beloved family. â€Å"The night is beautiful, / So the faces of my people† (lines 1-2). The possessive pronoun â€Å"my† indicates a certain intimacy between him and â€Å"his† people which is usually used for referring to a small group of people who shares something intimate and common such as â€Å"my family†. In this regard, Hughes speaks highly of his race as if he is talking about a family he loves most. â€Å"The stars are beautiful, /  So the eyes of my people† (3-4). The comparison of his people to the heavens indicates the depth of his love and care for them as he would to his family. â€Å"Beautiful, also, is the sun. / Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people† (5-6). In the poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, it can be assumed that Robert Hayden personally speaks through the voice of the speaker in his poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†. His distant relationship with his father is evident. In this melancholic poem, he narrates about the concealed appreciation of a son for his father’s acts of love by means of writing it in a prose. The narrator tells about the labors of his father even on a cold winter Sunday. However, in the poem, the speaker emphasizes that his father’s great efforts are usually ignored. The title of the poem itself already suggests a background for the readers. The speaker is obviously focused only on the â€Å"winter Sundays† and why it means too much work for the father. In the first stanza of the poem, the detailed description of the speaker’s father is very noticeable. He illustrated him by means of mentioning his physical condition as he works on cold Sundays. He could have described it in a clearer way by going straight to the point.   Nevertheless, he expressed his father’s poor countenance in a way that the reader can visualize the father’s hands cracked hands and the busy Sundays. The first two lines of the poem somewhat develops a thesis that would cover the whole idea in the poem. â€Å"Sundays too my father got up early / And put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,† (1-2). Sundays should be a day of rest but the speaker stresses that his father still wakes up even before the sun rose to go to work. He further highlights the weary countenance of his father as he describes his father’s â€Å"cracked hands that ached / from labor in the weekday weather made / Banked fires blaze† (3-5). The poem further shows how heartbreaking the father’s situation must be by writing the last line of the first stanza with, â€Å"No one ever thanked him† (5). With the last line, it is reasonable to consider that the speaker is one of those people who failed to thank him. In this regard, it can be assumed that the speaker is already in his old or middle age when he remembers how his father has shown him love in his own way. Clearly, these renowned African-American writers have frequently used the theme of family relationships to further address the problems of their society. The issues of racism, nationalism, and love are the implicit ideas which are present in the three literary pieces discussed. These authors portrays different types of African-American families which serves as the representation of the current society that they are in. since the family is the basic unit of society, it is the primary target of societal effects such as racism and other social issues. Every problem of the society can become the problem of the family which is why the most meaningful literary works of art somewhat involves the theme of family relationships. Works Cited Hayden, Robert. â€Å"Those Winter Sundays.† The Oxford Anthology of African-American Poetry. Ed. Arnold Rampersad, Hilary Herbold. United States of America: Oxford University Press US, 2006. 261. Hughes, Langston. â€Å"My People.† Poem Hunter. 19 April 2009. Walker, Alice. Everyday Use. Ed. Barbara Christian. United States of America: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Analysis Of Poem 7 Essay - 1739 Words

Detailed Analysis In verse 7, which is the first verse of the pericope, Paul contrasts the seeming advantages he had just listed which should have been of profit to him with regard to his standing with God when considered by human standards, yet in light of the new understanding he had received through Christ, he had determined that they were actually of â€Å"loss (Philippians 3:7 NRSV)† to him instead. Paul goes even further in verse 8, stating that his conception of â€Å"loss (Philippians 3:8 NRSV)† was not limited to just the benefits which should have profited him that he had previ-ously listed in verses 4-6, but extended to â€Å"everything (Philippians 3:8 NRSV)† in his life as well, when he contrasted them to the superior â€Å"value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord (Philippians 3:8 NRSV)† on whose account Paul had á ¼ ÃŽ ¶ÃŽ ·ÃŽ ¼ÃŽ ¹ÃÅ½ÃŽ ¸ÃŽ ·ÃŽ ½ which is in the aorist tense, indicating that it happened in the past, yet is indefinite regarding â€Å"duration, completion, or repetition (Heth)† – and passive voice indicating that the subject, in this case Paul, â€Å"receives the action of the verb (Heth)† – and indicative mood, expressing certainty and â€Å"present(ing) the verbal idea as fact (Heth)† – of ÃŽ ¶ÃŽ ·ÃŽ ¼ÃŽ ¹Ã¡ ½ ¹Ãâ€° â€Å"suffered the loss of all things (Philippians 3:8 NRSV)† †“ and one may assume that in addition to all of the things that Paul once thought were the â€Å"gains (Philippians 3:7 NRSV)† he had just listed, on Paul’s mind are also all of the things he had lost as a result of his imprisonment – and it seems likely thatShow MoreRelatedNotes On A Poem Unwritten1139 Words   |  5 PagesInstructions A poem unwritten is only a thought; unshared, unsaid— still less . . . for naught. Dwayne Donkersgoed â€Å"A Poem Unwritten† In the previous lessons you analyzed poetry; and you composed different types of poetry using various elements and devices. In this portfolio you will gather your best poetry to create a portfolio. You will submit this along with a poetry analysis for instructor review. Create A Poetry Portfolio Selecting Poetry for Your Portfolio Select two poems that you considerRead MoreAnalysis of A Darkling Thrush by Thomas Hardy Essay925 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of A Darkling Thrush by Thomas Hardy Analysis of â€Å"The Darkling Thrush†, by Thomas Hardy As the title has already mentioned, this assignment will be an analysis on a poem by Thomas Hardy. The poem is called â€Å"The Darkling Thrush†, also known by another title, â€Å"By the Century’s deathbed†. My analysis will include elements such as the poems’ setting, structure, imagery, diction, rhyme scheme and theme. I will go into one element at the time, and them give examples from one stanza onlyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem My August Guest By Robert Frost Essay1378 Words   |  6 PagesPaper #1: Formalist Analysis The term â€Å"formalism† refers to a critical approach that analyzes, interprets, or evaluates the features of a text. These features include not only grammar and syntax but also literary devices such as meter, and metaphor. The formalist approach does not pay attention to a text s historical, biographical, or geographical context. A formal analysis, is the formal analyzation of a text. This paper will delve into the formal analysis of two distinct poems, written by differentRead MorePoems: Poetry and Free Verse Poem774 Words   |  4 Pages2013** You will create a poetry journal. It will contain 20 poems. Each poem will contain one of the items below. You may not use the same poem twice. You may not use any poem we have read in class. 1. Rhyme (any kind) 11. Free Verse Poem 2. Imagery 12. Narrative Poem 3. Simile 13. Lyric Poem 4. Metaphor 14. Consonance 5. Alliteration 15. Assonance 6. Personification 16. Refrain 7. Hyperbole 17. Allusion 8. Extended Metaphor 18Read Moreanalysis of poem1342 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ To analyze a poem stylistically, we can analyze the poetic device, which is usually deviation and foregrounding, that the poet used in the poem. The term foregrounding refers to an effect brought about in the reader by linguistic or other forms of deviation in the literary text (Leech, 1985).In poem, devices of foregrounding and deviation are always used to draw reader’s attention and impress the readers. In the aspect of deviation and foregrounding, there are some perspectives on the nature ofRead MoreThe Pathfinder Of The Seas1674 Words   |  7 PagesLike This, she includes in her collection of found poems a poem that instills a similar vivid sense of imagery that one would experience by the ocean. Her found poem, called â€Å"The Pathfinder of the Seas,† includes a variety of words and sentences that relate to sailing in the sea. They were extracted from other books related to scientific research of the sky and the sea. The author brings together these distinct elements and structures them in a poem. This gives them a new home and, subsequently, givesRead MoreNature and the Free Flow of Emotion1230 Words   |  5 Pagesnature be your teacher† (Brainy Quote). According to the poet, we can gain all the knowledge necessary in life from nature. Wordsworth’s poem, â€Å"The World Is Too Much With Us,† can best be interpreted to mean that people have become too wrapped up in worldly things and have lost all appreciation for what nature has to offer. William Wordsworth was born April 7, 1770 in Cockermouth, Cumberland in England’s Lake District which is why he is known as one of the â€Å"lake poets† of the Romantic Era. He lostRead MoreThe Pathfinder Of The Seas1632 Words   |  7 PagesLike This, she includes in her collection of found poems a poem that instills a similar sense of imagery that one would experience by the ocean. Her found poem, called â€Å"The Pathfinder of the Seas,† includes a variety of words and sentences that relate to sailing in the sea. She extracted them from other literature related to scientific research of the sky and the sea. The author brings together these distinct elements and structures them in a poem. By giving them a new home, she subsequently givesRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Wallace Stevens : The Emperor Of Ice Cream1463 Words   |  6 Pagesand that he frequently writes poems and essays that are known world-wide. This means his article is at least somewhat reliable. This site analyzes the poem thoroughly, digging into different aspects of the poem. The analysis mentions symbolism of some of the objects quite often, such as the importance of the ice-cream and the muscular cigars. It also brings attention to all of the imagery in the poem, and how Stevens speech illustrates what is happening in the poem, but how he has hidden meaningsRead MoreThe Metaphysical Conceit in Donnes Poems1198 Words   |  5 PagesThe Metaphysical Conceit Donne’s Poems â€Å"The Flea† and â€Å"A Valediction† are poems by John Donne that were written in the 17th Century. These poems incorporate the fundamental of something called a metaphysical conceit. Interesting though, both poems use the metaphysical conceit to tell a story about two very opposite situation between two â€Å"partners†. â€Å"The Flea’s† metaphysical conceit is stretched along a lustful, passionate, relationship between two individuals. â€Å"A Valediction’s† metaphysical conceit

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Advertisement Effectiveness - 992 Words

Introduction: Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behaviour with respect to a commercial offering, although political amp; ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspapers; magazines; television commercials, radio advertising, outdoor advertising or direct mail or new media such as blogs, website or text messages. Definition:†¦show more content†¦Sources of data: Sources of data are mainly classified in two: Primary data amp; Secondary data. Primary data are those which are collected a fresh and for the first time amp; thus happen to be original in character. The primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire prepared with respect to the objective of the study. Simply primary data refers to the information got directly from the sampled respondents. Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. The secondary data are based on the documents available in the form of: Books Journals Published papers Internet Data Analysis and Statistical tools: The data collected were analysed and tabulations were made regarding the responses given by the respondents. No statistical tools were used in this project to measure the effectiveness of advertisements. Limitations of the study: 1) Sample size is small as compare to universe. 2) Respondents are biased towards their personal preferences and they might have not answered the questions correctly. 3) Due to simple random sampling there may be large deviation from that of universe. Chapter Scheme: Chapter 1: Introduction, objectives, statement ofShow MoreRelatedEffectiveness Of Print And Television Advertisements Essay1035 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Effectiveness of Print and Television advertisements, a Comparative study of the same brands on different media vehicles.† - Ayushee Bhatnagar Abstract In the age where technology has made things easy and convenient there are some things that have become complicated but necessary, same are the case with advertising. For the advertising companies, reaching to their target audience has become a complicated task. A significant shiftRead MoreEffectiveness of Advertisement in Telecom Industry7709 Words   |  31 PagesA PROJECT REPORT On A study on Effectiveness Of Advertisement in telecom industry Submitted to:- B.K.School of Business Management, Gujarat University, Ahmadabad Guided by:- Dr. Prateek Kanchan Submitted By: Sachin chokhawala (1912) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The satiation and euphonies that accompany the success completion of a task would be incomplete without a mention of people who made it possible. So, with immense gratitude, we acknowledge all those, whose guidanceRead MoreMarketing Effectiveness Of Quality Of The Brands And The Advertisements869 Words   |  4 PagesThe customer’s satisfaction is based on the marketing effectiveness of quality of the brands and the advertisements. This measurement is calculated as [average brand judgment/100 + average ad judgment/100]/2. The scoring ranges from 0 to 1.0 in which a good score will be rated more than 0.8.Our company’s current marketing effectiveness rating is: [52/100 + 61/100]/2 = 0.57. This is broken down to the following averages: target segments best brand judgments = (54 + 50)/2 = 52; first segment highestRead MoreThe Effectiveness of Dr Pepper Advertisements Essay1201 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effectiveness of Dr Pepper Advertisements Advertising appears in every part of our lives. What ever we see or do in a day involves advertisement. For example, buying a drink, waiting at the bus stop, or walking past a shop window. All have some sort of advertisements displayed. Advertising is a very productive and successful business. Advertising drives the majority of products we buy, and no matter what we do, we cannot escape it. We see advertising all over theRead MoreGiorgio Armanis Fragrance for Men: Effectiveness of an Advertisement1242 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract This paper will examine the effectiveness of an advertisement for Giorgio Armani’s fragrance for men found in Men’s Health magazine. Focusing on the specifics of the ad, analysis will be done to depict the ins and outs of how the advertisement is conveying its message to the reader. To understand how marketers exploit their products to the consumers, the dynamics of an ad can be studied. Assessing the advertisement on a few important characteristics such as how the product is differentiatedRead MoreEssay about The Effectiveness of Sex Appeal in Advertisement661 Words   |  3 PagesThe Effectiveness of Sex Appeal in Advertisement Sex is everywhere. Its in every magazine, on every television station, and in every movie. Sex appears in advertisements for everything from shoes to food to computers. It is understandable why advertisers use sex appeal since it sets their ads apart from the countless others. Ads with sex can be more memorable, but sometimes too much sex overpowers the ad, drawing attention away from the brand. Overdone sex appeal can offend the targetRead MoreEssay about The Effectiveness of the Takamine Guitar Advertisement548 Words   |  3 PagesThe Effectiveness of the Takamine Guitar Advertisement The Takamine guitar advert can be viewed as an effective piece of media in an array of different ways. The ways used play on a very unconventional style, which is not often used for a musical instrument. For example most guitar advertisements would use such images as a lead guitarist of a band standing tall whilst making his guitar scream out whilst he is backed by a huge amp or some such and the other. TheRead MoreThe Lack Of Promotion For College Students Essay1275 Words   |  6 Pagesgroup of potential consumers in Athens, would help AFM’s development in several aspects including customer base, reputation, and profitability. Third Criteria: Advertising Effectiveness Cost and convenience are indeed important to comparison and evaluation different methods used for AFM’s advertisements to student. But effectiveness (the effect measured or expected from different advertising methods used) can also be crucial to decision making on advertising strategies of AFM. Based on the potentialRead MoreEffectiveness of Body Image Portrayal in Different Advertisements 804 Words   |  3 PagesWhat many women think when they see a Victoria’s Secret advertisement on TV is to put the chocolate down and hit the gym. Why is this? To be beautiful and fit is a prerequisite to becoming a model for their various lingerie campaigns. People all around the world tune in to watch the annual Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show, and see their â€Å"Angels† strut down the walkway in lingerie. In today’s society, being thin is considered attractive and acceptable—what the ideal woman should look like. While noRead MoreHumor and Persuasion13 18 Words   |  6 Pagesenables the audience to feel compelled to match their views with the speaker’s own views. Humor is said, on more than one occasion, to be effective in persuasion but with the effectiveness also comes the associated risks. In the Journal of General Psychology, a study was done by Jim Lyttle, where he researched the effectiveness of humor and persuasion. He used business ethics training while trying to determine if humor plays a role and how much in persuasion. Cartoon images as well as wisecracks

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Achievements and Weaknesses of the Middle Kingdom and Its...

In Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom is seen as one of its finest ages. This is because it was a time of ‘expanding political strength’ and ‘broader economic horizons’[1]. Generally thought to be from approximately 2000 B.C. to 1780 B.C.,[2] it was during the Twelfth Dynasty that Egyptians opened a wide trade amongst other countries, improved agricultural systems, fortified and expanded Egyptian borders with a strong military reputation, and explore the arts and literature to a depth which Egyptians had not previously. The Middle Kingdom has little weaknesses, but these did not prevent its gradual downfall. For Ancient Egypt, a significant advantage of the Middle Kingdom was its trade with other countries. In Palestine and Lower†¦show more content†¦There is a possibility that the rise of the cult of Osiris – the belief that if the right procedures are taken, one will ascend into the afterlife – and in addition to the King, the allowance for the ordinary Egyptian peasant to enjoy the afterlife as well might have undermined the pharaoh’s authority[18]. This in addition to the rising power of the priests would have grown easily into a situation of great unrest, as more Egyptians assumed positions of power and fought amongst themselves. The Middle Kingdom did not end abruptly; instead it was a steady decline that saw its fall. The long reigns of Sesotris II and Ammenemes III (around fifty years each) led to various problems (History of Ancient Egypt) [19] including a lack of faith in the singular king or pharaoh, and those who were denied the crown of Egypt perhaps went to rule other parts of Egypt, gaining power and therefore limiting the power of the king[20]. ‘The country does not seem to have collapsed; instead a feeling that was only the central power that was subject to crises, whereas the stability of the civilization as a whole remained constant’[21]. The diversion of power went from the pharaoh to more of the common people, so they were not as affected as much as the court of the king seemed to be. After the death of the last king, the first to be titled ‘woman-pharaoh’, Sobkneferu[23], and the powerful Twelfth Dynasty ended, Egypt leftShow MoreRelatedCourse Project Paper Gm5913925 Words   |  16 Pagesfrom the perspective of middle management. This information further provides tremendous feedback for the lack of change within the entire organization. The Organizational Culture Inventory information indicates that Cullum Detuners, Limited has an Aggressive/Defensive Style to be Oppositional and the secondary style is Passive/Defensive to be Avoidance. The Organizational Culture Inventory further indicates that the weakest style is that of Constructive to be Achievement and Affiliative. (See FigureRead MoreCompare and Contract the Budget Processes and Systems of Fiscal Accountability in Presidential and Parliamen tary Systems of Government.8193 Words   |  33 Pagesof government systems that exist in various countries with specific focus on the Presidential system as obtained in countries such as the United States of America and the Parliamentary â€Å"Westminster† form that exists in countries such as the United Kingdom. The different forms of budgets are discussed including their advantages and disadvantages, with particular reference to the degree of the legislature’s political control over the executive in the budget process. Specific areas of budgetary controlRead MoreCase 29 Panera Bread Company: Rising Fortunes?25159 Words   |  101 PagesSWOT analysis can be understood as the examination of an organization s internal strengths and weaknesses, and its environments opportunities, and threats. Maxis Berhad started their operations in the year 1995 being the leading mobile communication service provider in Malaysia with more than 11.4 million mobile subscribers up to date. (Maxis Berhad, 2011) SWOT is the acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats where it will be used to assess the business as it is important forRead MoreCustomer Relationship Management20711 Words   |  83 Pagessupports this argument by saying that CRM can perform at its best when technology will be properly used. While adding to this Boyle, (2004) says that through proper utilization of technology firm’s intelligence can be enhanced. This means an achievement of overall goals and objectives. Various software developed by IT specialists can be used to acquire, retain and store the customer data. A firm can respond to customer needs effectively and efficiently by the use of these soft wares. AccordingRead MoreEconomy of the Philippines7166 Words   |  29 PagesAquino Family has become epic. In spite of the fiscal irresponsibility of both Ferdinand and Imelda, it was probably the assassination of Benigno S. Aquino Jr., who was the opposition leader and an outspoken critic of Mr. Marcos, which led to the downfall of Ferdinand (Manlupig, 2011). When Corazon Aquino died in 2009, there was an emotional appeal for her son, Benigno Aquino III, to run for the Presidency. With a promise to curb the corrupt political culture and decrease poverty, he became presidentRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words   |  319 Pagesby appointment through the use of oracles, (3) by designation of a successor by the original charismatic leader, (4) by appointment by the administrative staff or election by the community, (5) by succession according to heredity, or (6) by achievement of the qualiï ¬ cations of leadership through ordination or education.49 The end result is that the authority of successive leaders is legitimated, not by virtue of their extraordinary gifts or special relationships to God, but by some secondaryRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesin a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisherRead MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words   |  385 PagesN A LY S I S STEP 6 THE TA N G I B L E FIRM’S RESOURCES, AND I N TA N G I B L E This is an important step, because the core competencies are fundamental in the strategies you suggest – ï ¬ rms use their core competencies. STEP 9 WEAKNESSES What major weaknesses does the ï ¬ rm have – for example, old technology, very limited ï ¬ nance and poor cash ï ¬â€šow, no succession planning? List all relevant resources. It is useful to distinguish between tangible and intangible resources. Remember: Firms haveRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagestechnical entrepreneurship exclusively. A variety of skills are typical of the most effective managers, and some of them appear incompatible. 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